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2015年江西省高考押题 精粹英语3

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发表于 2016-3-3 15:40:30 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Exercise seems to be good for the human brain, with many recent studies suggesting that regular exercise improves memory and thinking skills. But an interesting new study asks whether the apparent cognitive benefits from exercise are real or just a placebo effect — that is, if we think we will be “smarter” after exercise, do our brains respond accordingly? The answer has significant implications for any of us hoping to use exercise to keep our minds sharp throughout our lives.
While many studies suggest that exercise may have cognitive benefits, recently some scientists have begun to question whether the apparently beneficial effects of exercise on thinking might be a placebo effect. So researchers at Florida State University in Tallahassee and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign decided to focus on expectations, on what people anticipate that exercise will do for thinking. If people’s expectations jibe (吻合) closely with the actual benefits, then at least some of those improvements are probably a result of the placebo effect and not of exercise.
For the new study, which was published last month in PLOS One, the researchers recruited 171 people through an online survey system, they asked half of these volunteers to estimate by how much a stretching and toning regimens (拉伸运动) performed three times a week might improve various measures of thinking. The other volunteers were asked the same questions, but about a regular walking program.
In actual experiments, stretching and toning program generally have little if any impact on people’s cognitive skills. Walking, on the other hand, seems to substantially improve thinking ability.
But the survey respondents believed the opposite, estimating that the stretching and toning program would be more beneficial for the mind than walking. The estimates of benefits from walking were lower.
These data, while they do not involve any actual exercise, are good news for people who do exercise. “The results from our study suggest that the benefits of aerobic exercise are not a placebo effect,” said Cary Stothart, a graduate student in cognitive psychology at Florida State University, who led the study.
If expectations had been driving the improvements in cognition seen in studies after exercise, Mr. Stothart said, then people should have expected walking to be more beneficial for thinking than stretching. They didn’t, implying that the changes in the brain and thinking after exercise are physiologically genuine.
The findings are strong enough to suggest that exercise really does change the brain and may, in the process, improve thinking, Mr. Stothart said. That conclusion should encourage scientists to look even more closely into how, at a molecular level, exercise remodels the human brain, he said. It also should encourage the rest of us to move, since the benefits are, it seems, not imaginary, even if they are in our head.

1. Why did the researchers at the two universities conduct the research?
A. To discover the placebo effect in the exercise.
B. To prove the previous studies have a big drawback.
C. To test whether exercise can really improve cognition.
D. To encourage more scientists to get involved in the research.
2. What can we know about the research Cary Stothart and his team carried out?
A. They employed 171 people to take part in the actual exercise.
B. The result of the research removed the recent doubt of some scientists.
C. The participants thought walking had a greater impact on thinking ability.
D. Their conclusion drives scientists to do research on the placebo effect.
3. What might be the best title for the passage?
A. Is it necessary for us to take exercise?                 B. How should people exercise properly?
C. What makes us smarter during exercise?                 D. Does exercise really make us smarter?

答案:1.C  2.B  3.D  

解析
本文针对运动是否有益大脑认知这一现象展开讨论,搬出了一个由大学合作得出的结论,的确有益,可信度较高。看来四肢发达的人不见得头脑简单哦!
1.C 细节理解题。第二段第一句recently some scientists have begun to question whether the apparently beneficial effects of exercise on thinking might be a placebo effect, 句意:最近一些科学家开始质疑,运动对思维有益的显著效果是不是一种安慰剂效应。由此得知,To test whether exercise can really improve cognition实验论证是两所大学实验的目的。
2.B 细节理解题。第六段第二句Cary Stothart说的话The results from our study suggest that the benefits of aerobic exercise are not a placebo effect, 句意:我们的实验结果表明有氧健身(对大脑)的益处不是一种安慰剂效应。由此The result of the research removed the recent doubt of some scientists.便移除了那些科学家质疑的念头。
3.D 主旨大意题。Does exercise really make us smarter? 运动使人聪明吗?全文围绕这一观点展开讨论,举出两所大学合作实验的成功案列来作为论据。其他选型偏离太大.
The current Ebola (埃博拉病毒) outbreak in western and central Africa has infected at least 3,069 people, including 1,552 dead, making it the largest outbreak in history. Ebola is a deadly virus —about 60 percent of people infected with it have died.
How is Ebola doing its harm?
When a person becomes infected with Ebola, the virus damages the body’s immune (免疫的) cells, which defend against infection, said a researcher at Lancaster University. But if a person’s immune system can stand up to this attack, then he is more likely to survive the disease.
The patients that survive it best are those who don’t get such a bad disadvantage in immune system. But if the body isn’t able to get rid of this attack, then the immune system becomes less able to regulate (调节) itself. This means the immune system is more likely to run out of control, leading to a drop in blood pressure, multi-organ failure and eventually death.
What are the common symptoms of the disease?
Fever. Headache. Joint and muscle aches. Weakness. Diarrhea. Vomiting. Stomach pain. Lack of appetite. Chills. Rash. Redness in the eyes. Hiccups. Cough. Sore throat. Chest pain. Difficult breathing or swallowing. Bleeding inside and outside of the body.
How to prevent the spread of Ebola?
Ebola can be spread primarily via direct contact with patients, specifically the blood and fluids of an infected patient.
We should avoid contact with infected patients and objects such as clothing, bedding, and needles used by them. Avoid areas where infections have been reported. For now, the disease has only been confirmed in central and West Africa, four cases in America and Europe. Avoid eating wild-caught bush meat. Researchers have suspected that the disease came to humans via animals, probably through the meat of primates(灵长类). If you’re in an area where the disease has been reported, avoid purchasing, eating, or handling wild game to stay on the safe side.
Wear protective medical clothing if you’re around infected patients. Extreme caution is necessary. Hospital workers must use masks, gloves, goggles, and gowns, which needed to be worn at all times if you’re around infected patients.
How Do People Survive Ebola?
Doctors don’t know for certain who will survive Ebola, and there is no specific treatment or cure for the disease. Although in the minority, some people do recover from infection.
Our suggestions include:
Maintain your electrolytes (电解质) and body liquid. Sports drinks can be used. Monitor your blood pressure and control it if necessary. Dropping blood pressure may be a serious sign of infection. Breathe in an oxygen-rich environment. Quickly address any symptoms of infection. Be honest about when and where you’re feeling pain.  
4. Ebola causes the death of a human being by ________.
A. attacking him with high fever                                B. regulating his immune system
C. damaging his immune cells                                        D. harming all his organs directly
5. What is NOT mentioned as the symptom of Ebola?
A. Fever and chills.                                                        B. Swallowing difficulty.  
C. Loss of blood.                                                        D. High blood pressure.
6. In order not to be infected by Ebola, we should _________.
A. have the clothing of the infected cleaned                B. avoid eating wild animals like monkeys
C. not travel to Africa, America or Europe                D. stay at home without going anywhere
7. It is true that ________.
A. a certain number of people survive Ebola                B. human has found a special cure for Ebola
C. oxygen can save infected people’s lives                D. low blood pressure is surely caused by Ebola

答案:4.C  5.D   6.B  7.A

解析:
当一个人被Ebola感染时,病毒就伤害了身体的免疫细胞。研究者怀疑疾病是通过动物传给人的,很可能是通过灵长类的肉。提醒人们避免吃野生野味。
4.C 细节理解题。根据第一小标题第一段第一句When a person becomes infected with Ebola, the virus damages the body’s immune(免疫的)cells, 当一个人被Ebola感染时,病毒就伤害了身体的免疫细胞。
5.D 细节理解题。根据第二小标题中Fever. Headache. Joint and muscle aches. Weakness. Diarrhea Vomiting. Stomach pain. Lack of appetite. Chills. Rash. Redness in the eyes. Hiccups.



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发表于 2016-11-8 02:21:30 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢楼主~~













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发表于 2016-11-9 04:35:57 | 显示全部楼层
哈哈,有意思。













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